On 25 and 28 May 2018, the French Data Protection Authority (the "CNIL") received group complaints from the associations None Of Your Business and La Quadrature du Net. La Quadrature du Net was mandated by 10 000 people to refer the matter to the CNIL. The associations claimed that Google did not have a valid legal basis to process the personal data of its users, particularly for ads personalization purposes. The complaints focused specifically on Android's set-up process where users need to create a Google account in order to use their device.
The simple answer is ‘yes’, according to the recent European Court of Human Rights judgment in Barbulescu v Romania, though this needs some explanation; especially given Judge Pinto de Albuquerque’s